This expression must include one or more variables from your dataset, and can use arithmetic or functions. It is also useful to explore whether the computation you specified was applied correctly to the data. When you are satisfied with the list of value labels you have created click OK to finalise them. In SPSS, the functions UPCASE() and LOWER() will convert a string variable's values to all uppercase characters or all lowercase characters, respectively. The first one will be called "Institutionalized Political Trust" (IPP) and the second one "non-Institutionalized Political Trust" (NIPP). For example: Actually there are lots of different types of missing value to consider and sometimes you will want to include missing cases within your analysis (Extension B talks about missing data in more detail). 2. Let's use the compute command to make a new variable that has the length in feet instead of inches, called lenft. You can merge two or more variables to form a new variable. Simply select the data type from the drop down menu in each cell (see below). The ANY function is designed to return the following: The application we will demonstrate is intended to be used when you want to check for one specific value across many variables. Here you can create new variables. 4.3 SPSS Lesson 3: Combining variables – advanced In SPSS Lesson 2 we saw how we can take variables defined on a Lickert scale and add them together, reverse scaling if necessary, to produce a single, better, variable for analysis. SPSS is not case-sensitive with respect to variable names. Figure 6: Creating a New Variable From the Transform Menu in SPSS. In theory, anyvariable can be used as a filter variable. Use SUM function to sum variables in SPSS e.g Transform / Compute Sum = SUM(v1,v2,v3,v4) The Syntax for this would be: COMPUTE sum = SUM(v1,v2,v3,v4) . To check that the new variable computed correctly, you can manually calculate the BMI for a few cases in your dataset just to spot-check that the computation worked correctly. We use the Compute function to create totally new variables. This inevitably results in variable names that make no sense to anyone but the researcher! SEC is often collapsed to a three class version, which combines higher and lower managerial and professional (categories 1 and 2), intermediate, small employers and lower supervisory (categories 3 to 5) and semi-routine, routine and unemployed groups (categories 6 to 8). You can type in up to three individual values (or a range of values) which you wish to be coded as missing and treated as such during analysis. For cases from the current file, DATSET is set to 1. The easiest way is just to type it in. Notice that in rows 6 and 11, nonmissing values are all equal to No, so the resulting value of any_yes is 0. Syntax is ‘run’, as you would run computer code. One of the best ways analysts can add value is by finding new ways to examine data. If you have siblings or half-siblings, has at least one of them been diagnosed with ADHD? We’ll show you the procedure for these first two examples using the LSYPE dataset, why not follow us through using LSYPE 15,000 ? Also covered is the difference between row numbers (which are a part of the spreadsheet) and ID variables (which are a part of the dataset and act as case identifiers). This arrangement is determined by the location of the /IN subcommand following the designation of the current file. This menu allows you to assign a value to each category (level) of your variable. New string variables can now be referenced as emo(1), emo(2) and so on. A Target Variable: The name of the new variable that will be created during the computation. Hello All, I am completely new to spss, and am trying to use spss to generate a variable on the quality of health service available to the residents of an area. There are hundreds of commands and our goal is to introduce you to the concept of syntax rather than throw a reference book at you. Our simple hypothesis might be that participants perform better on a … Since the predictor variable is ordinal, I divided the variable into categories and defined the reference category as the last category. Click Continue to confirm and return to the Compute Variable window. Alternatively, you can produce the same result by opening a syntax window (File > New > Syntax) and executing the following code: This syntax can be generated automatically by following the dialog window steps above and clicking Paste instead of OK. Let's instead try computing the average test score using the built-in mean function. If you do create a new categorical variable, there are two things you must be cautious of. A good example is to add the suffix ‘_avg‘ to the variable name to signify that it is a mean. We now need to tell SPSS how to calculate the new variable in the Numeric Expression box, using the list of variables on the left and the keypad on the bottom right. Note that when you specify a condition in the Compute Variable: If Cases window, the computation will only be performed on the cases meeting the specified condition. Note: This list is not exhaustive. If you would prefer a more detailed introduction you can look at the Economic and Social Data Service SPSS Guide, Chapter 5 (see Resources). (This number comes from the length of the variable Major.). In SPSS, you can modify any function that takes a list of variables as arguments using the .n suffix, where n is an integer indicating how many nonmissing values a given case must have. We know this would be inaccurate. Look in the Model Summary table, ... consider creating a new variable or deleting one of the predictor variables. As we said, if you want to know more about these processes we recommend you use some of the materials we list on our Resources Page, particularly the Economic and Social Data Service SPSS Guide. After executing the transformation and rerunning the frequency table on the transformed variable, we should see that the counts and frequencies of the previously duplicated categories are now combined: While this variable is still not ready for analysis -- for example, several duplicated categories exist because of misspellings or minor variations in wording -- we have now completed the first step. All the traditional mathematical operators (i.e., +, -, /, (, ), and *) work in R in the way that you would expect when performing math on variables. The format specification for strings will always start with the letter A, followed by a number giving the "width" of the string (the maximum number of characters that variable can contain). Examples of this include: For example, say we were looking at our LSYPE data and are interested in whether the parent and the student BOTH aspired to continue in full time education after the age of 16 (e.g. And just as importantly, you’ll have documentation for … The default type for new variables is numeric. You do not need to worry about it but learning it in tandem with learning SPSS will really help your understanding so don’t ignore it! How to recode multiple response variables in SPSS into a single categorical variable. Aggregated Variables are source variables used with aggregate functions to create new aggregate variables. Filtering in SPSSusually involves 4 steps: 1. createa filter variable; 2. activatethe filter variable; 3. run one or many analyses -such as correlations, ANOVA or a chi-square test- with the filter variable in effect; 4. deactivatethe filter variable. Syntax, in the context of SPSS, is basically computer language. When working with string variables -- and especially when working with text data that's been manually typed into the computer -- your data values may have variation in capitalization. I have 26 variables and each of them contain numbers ranging from 1 to 61. 1) DO REPEAT-END REPEAT The draw back is that you can use DO REPEAT-END REPEAT mainly only for data transformations - for example COMPUTE, RECODE etc. You then need to name (and Label, as you would in the Variable View) the Output Variable, which we have named SECshort (given we are essentially shortening the original SEC variable). In the previous examples, we did not talk about what happens when one or more of the variables has missing values for a given case. Job Category Then you will need to create 2 dummy variables (i.e. We will therefore give it the shortened name in SPSS of ‘bothasp’. You will use one or more variables to define the conditions under which your computation should be applied to the data. Figure 1.7.2: Crosstabulation for both Full-Time Education Aspiration variables. read data with the INPUT statement in a DATA step. I have a data base of patients which contain multiple variables as yes=1, no=0. Using a simple example, let’s imagine that we want to investigate the phenomenon of ‘social facilitation’. Alternatively, using the formula MEAN.2(English TO Writing) would require that two or more of the test score variables have valid values (i.e., a given case could have at most two missing test scores). If you do not see the new variable in the Variable View, the computation was unsuccessful. Has your biological mother been diagnosed with ADHD? I am doing a binary logistic regression with an ordinal predictor variable. *Set up a vector. As you can see there were 11090 cases where both the pupil and the parent had aspirations for full-time education after age 16. Syntax is entered and operated through the Syntax Editor which is a third type of SPSS window. SPSS recoding variables data from multiple variables into boolean variables. Figure 1.7.3: Frequency table for 3 category SEC. Let’s create this new variable using the menus: Transform > Compute. In order to split the file, SPSS requires that the data be sorted with respect to the splitting variable. In the Variable Coding area, select the Dichotomies option and specify a Counted Value of 1. SPSS users often want to know how they can combine variables together. It is very easy to forget what exactly a variable represents or how it was calculated and in such situations good labelling is crucial! If you click Paste after revising the formula, the following syntax will be written to the syntax editor window: A common scenario on health questionnaires is to have multiple questions about risk factors for a certain disease. What we want to do is to average each student’s scores to see what their mean score is from the 4 subjects; thus, creating a mean variable. One problem is that all the above examples change the original values of the variable. This worked well to create a variable with a combo of age group and sex: *create age group matched with gender categories egen agesex=group(agegrp gender), label tab agesex The new ID variable contains a unique identifier for each case in the data set. F Function group: You can also use the built-in functions in the Function group list on the right-hand side of the window. Creating a New SPSS Dataset -- Variable Specification and Data Entry When you open SPSS you will see the Data Editor This shows the Data View of the editor. Also notice that the only case with a missing value for any_yes is row 10, which has missing values for all three of q1, q2, and q3. That’s it. We have whizzed through the process of computing and recoding variables. 2 The default specification is to Include all cases. Re: Creating one single new variable from multiple variables using IF statement Posted 11-01-2019 10:52 AM (278 views) | In reply to Cindarellie If you want PROC FREQ to be able to count everything, your data set needs to contain everything. After activating it, cases with 1. zeroes, 2. user missing valuesor 3. system missing values on the filter variable are excluded from all analyses until you deactivate the filter. These are two different variables but we could combine them. Additionally, if you see the new column in the Data View but every row has a missing value, there was an issue with your computation. Click the Change button to make it appear in the Numeric Variable -> Output Variable box. But what if there had been ten or twenty test score variables? A period goes at the end of the COMPUTE statement, after the end of the formula. If you create a frequency table of this variable (Analyze > Descriptives > Frequencies), you'll notice that there are many rows of the table, and that some of the rows of the table are identical except for differences in capitalization: If we want to merge the otherwise-identical categories of "Art History" and "Art history", we'll need to transform this variable so that the characters are all uppercased or all lowercased. You can use this menu to add variables into a computation: either double-click on a variable to add it to the Numeric Expression field, or select the variable(s) that will be used in your computation and click the arrow to move them to the Numeric Expression text field (C). Let us turn our attention to another pillar of SPSS: feared by some, cherished by others, it is time to meet Syntax! Notice how each line of syntax ends in a period. If you switch to the Variable View on the main screen you will see that bothasp has appeared at the bottom.Before you begin to use it as part of your analysis remember that you will need to define its properties. Variables can be combined in SPSS by adding or multiplying them together. You can spot-check the computation by viewing your data in the Data View tab. You can also use the built-in functions in the Function Group list under the right column. A little better. What if we wanted to refer to the entire range of test score variables, beginning with English and ending with Writing, without having to type out each variable's name? There are 8 categories for this variable, and a ninth category for missing data so the values range between 0 and 9. Each variable in your dataset is entered on a row in the Variable View and each column represents a certain setting or property that you can adjust for each variable in the corresponding cell. There is an example below –the syntax taken from the process of recoding the SEC variable (also shown in the above syntax alert box): If you want to run the syntax again simply copy and paste it into the Syntax Editor. Suppose you have a nominal variable with more than two categories that you want to use as a predictor in a linear Regression analysis i.e. they wanted to go to college or university). Click on Change. If there was an error in how the computation was specified, the log in the Output Viewer will often show an error message. The Result. Written and illustrated tutorials for the statistical software SPSS. It is important that you know how to add and edit, Each variable in your dataset is entered on a row in the, You can type in up to three individual values (or a range of values) which you wish to be coded as missing and treated as such during analysis. For this example, we will use this tiny dataset. SPSS will not stop you from using a continuous variable as a splitting variable, but it is a bad idea to try to attempt this; SPSS will see each unique numeric value as a distinct category. I need to combine these two variables into a different, new variable which now categorizes the item as either blank, knowledge, behavior, or strength, with these conditions: if Var1 rated as a "0" the new variable would be marked "BLANK" if Var1 rated 1 and Var 2 rated either 2, 3, or 0 the new variable would be marked "knowledge" These are some of the most common ways that you can create variables in a DATA step: use an assignment statement. In the Numeric Expression field, type the following expression: (Alternatively, you can double-click on the variable names in the left column to move them to the Numeric Expression field, and then write the expression around them.) values 1 and 2 become 1, values 3, 4 and 5 become 2, etc.) Let’s generate a frequency table of our new variable to check that it looks okay (See Page 1.6 if you need to refresh your memory about this). In this example, let’s say we have some scores (out of 100) on different college subject tests. It is a nominal variable not a scale variable (which is what SPSS sets as the default) and you will need to give it a label. To compute a new variable, click Transform > Compute Variable. You may not know the precise commands for the processes but you don’t need to –run the process using the menus and examine the text to see where changes can be made. For example, you may want to: In this tutorial, we'll discuss how to compute variables in SPSS using numeric expressions, built-in functions, and conditional logic. so that you can analyse them statistically. Let’s do this transformation using SPSS! A multiple-response set acts like a variable in some ways, but in other ways it doesn’t. I’d like to plot the Dependent variable against the predicted values to see We briefly introduced the Variable View on Page 1.4 but we need to take a closer look. If the /IN subcommand had followed the name of the application file, then cases from that file would have values of 1 … Your final numeric expression should appear as. For example, the SET, MERGE, … I have a data base of patients which contain multiple variables as yes=1, no=0. Once a variable is entered here, you can click on “Type & Label” to assign a variable type and give it a label. We are using the Range option because we are collapsing multiple values so that they are represented by one value (e.g. Answer. This will allow you to specify the conditions under which the computation will be applied to your data. If you've already verified the computation for AverageScore2, then you should be able to verify that AverageScore2 and AverageScore3 are identical. With regard to our test data, the syntax below shows how to convert numeric_1 into (previously created) string_3. The aggregate variable name is followed by an optional variable label in quotes, the name of the aggregate function, and the source variable name in parentheses. To do this you highlight the syntax you would like to use by clicking and dragging your mouse over it in the syntax window and then clicking on the highlighted ‘Run’ arrow. Numeric variables. The Compute Variable window will open where you will specify how to calculate your new variable. We have already seen that this can take a while! If you want such a reference book, a recommendation can be found over in our Resources: try Economic and Social Data Service SPSS Guide (Chapter 4). In the Output Variable area, give the new variable the name CommuteLength, then click Change. It would take much longer to manually enter all twenty variable names. If the variables are not in sequential order, this method may not work correctly. When using SPSS's special built-in functions, you can refer to a range of variables by using the statement TO. The … In this example, we wish to compute BMI for the respondents in our sample. The Compute Variable window will open where you will specify how to calculate your new variable. *New string variables: create more and make them longer than you expect to need. Is it possible, if more than one choice is indicated , for the recode to use a priority system in choosing which one to specify in the new variable? This may be either because you wish to analyze only some of the variables or because you have created some intermittent variables which are not needed any longer. Here you can see the final result. This command changes the name of the variable on the left hand of the equals sign into the name on the right hand. 3 Click on Old and New Values. You will also need to define Missing values of -1 and -2 and define the Values as shown: It is worth checking that the new variable has been created correctly. Let’s look at the example of the SEC variable. E.g. So we will write variable no 1 Q1_NR in the Name section, and then we need to click on Change as follows: The height (in inches) and weight (in pounds) of the respondents were observed; so to compute BMI, we want to plug those values into the formula, $$\mathrm{BMI} = \frac{\mathrm{Weight}*703}{\mathrm{Height}^{2}}$$. Hi, I am new on SPSS, I hope you can provide some insights on the following. Now you know how to alter the properties of existing variables we can move on to show you how to compute new ones. One of the places that SPSS syntax excels at efficiency is when you’re creating new variables. We use the recode into same variable or recode into different variableoptions when we want to alter an existing variable. Click the Old and New Values button. There are many kinds of conditions you can specify by selecting a variable (or multiple variables) from the left column, moving them to the center text field, and using the blue buttons to specify values (e.g., “1”) and operations (e.g., +, *, /). You do not necessarily need to use the Compute Variables dialog window in order to compute variables or generate syntax. I want for each case of 1, each case of 2 etc. Once you have set up your new variable and are happy with it you can use it in your analysis! Clicking on the cell for the relevant variable will summon the pop-up menu shown below. In the sample dataset, the variable Major is a string variable containing open-ended, write-in responses asking for the person's college major. Simply type a name for the new variable in the text field. Again, this is not something to worry about yet... but it is an important issue that will require familiarity with the recoding process. Hi, I am new on SPSS, I hope you can provide some insights on the following. (Stated another way, a given case could have at most one missing test score and still be OK.). First situation Question. I have a data base of patients which contain multiple variables as yes=1, no=0. If you want to open a new syntax window simply go File > New > Syntax. The default type for new variables … This one requires you to recode the old values into new … If you look at the cell where the response to both variables was ‘yes’ you will see the value of 11090, which is the same value as saw when looking at the frequency of responses for the bothasp variable. I would like to create a new variable (an ID variable) which would number each case in my data, starting with 1 and ending with n, the number of cases in the file. If you want to do so for only some cases but not others, use IF instead. *As we'll loop over characters in original string, we'll pass each character into scratch variable #char for easier reference. In this section we will see how to create new variables with compute. Hi, I am new on SPSS, I hope you can provide some insights on the following. Syntax to read the CSV-format sample data and set variable labels and formats/value labels. You define it based on the variables you’ve already defined, but it doesn’t show up on the SPSS Variable View tab. However, with string variables, you must first "declare" a new variable as a string variable before you can define it using a COMPUTE statement: On the first line, STRING statement declares the new variable's name ( NewVariableName) and its format (A20) of a new string variable. We want to create an adapted 3 category version of the original SEC variable rather than overwriting the original so we will recode into different variables: Transform > Recode into Different Variables. It does not assign "extra risk" if someone has two or more relatives that have been diagnosed. where s2 is a string variable, s1 is a numeric variable or value and f1 is the numeric format to be used. You can give these values labels in the normal way using the, 1) Whether or not the parent wants their child to go to full-time education after the age of 16 (the variable named, 2) Whether or not the student themselves want to go into full-time education post-16 (, It is worth checking that the new variable has been created correctly. To check that the new variable computed correctly, you can manually calculate the averages for a few cases in your dataset just to spot-check that the computation worked correctly. Missing: This setting can also be very important as it allows you to tell SPSS how to identify cases where a value is missing. On the second line, the COMPUTE statement gives the actual formula for the variable declared in the STRING statement. To compute a new variable, click Transform > Compute Variable. If … In the String Expression box, enter the formula. It is important that you know how to add and edit variables into your dataset. This allows you to restrict the number of digits that can be typed into a cell for that variable (e.g. To specify the conditions under which your computation should be applied, however, you will need to click Include if case satisfies condition. or if you are damn sure that you have a valid copy of your data set elsewhere. For cases from appdat.sav, DATSET is set to 0. If the new values are shorter than the defined width of the target variable, the values are right-padded with blanks. We can find the new variable in the last column in Data View or in the last row of Variable View. In this case, the new variable will have a width of 20, so data values can contain up to 20 characters. I will call this new variable ha_rescue. We have already seen that this can take a while! Figure 1.7.1 shows the frequency table for the bothasp variable. Create new variable based on multiple variables with specified values? Listwise exclusion can end up throwing out a lot of data, especially if you are computing a subscale from many variables. In the previous example, we explicitly specified all four test score variables in the MEAN function. ﻿Let’s use the hsb2 data set and make new variables using some of these functions We will start by deleting from this data set some of the variables that we will not be using. As long as a case has at least n valid values, the computation will be carried out using just the valid values. The final expression indicates that the new variable, AverageScore3, will be calculated as the average of all the variables between English and Writing in the dataset. From the menu, choose. We want to create two new variables. Rename Variable (Fake_Var1 =New_Var1). This is especially true when you’re creating a LOT of new variables, but even one or two can be quicker if you write the syntax code instead of menus. We wanted to give you a basic grounding as it will come in handy later but realise we have only scratched the surface. Since we have chosen, Recode into different variables. string emo_1 to emo_30 (a25). Viewed 480 times 3. To do this we can run a frequency table of our new variable (, Let’s do this transformation using SPSS! © 2021 Kent State University All rights reserved. Press OK to produce the new variable. You can also do the following if you have more variables: COMPUTE sum_all=SUM(v1 TO v102). You can give these values labels in the normal way using the Values setting. 1. Click Continue to shut the Old and New Values window and then OK on the main recode window to create your new variable... as before, remember to check that the properties are correct and to create value labels in the Variable View. If you are analysing your data using multiple regression and any of your independent variables were measured on a nominal or ordinal scale, you need to know how to create dummy variables and interpret their results. If you click on a specific function, a description of that function will appear in the text field to the left. For example, on a questionnaire about ADHD, we may ask three questions about whether an individual's biological parents or siblings have been diagnosed with ADHD: Suppose we want to only have a single indicator variable, where 0 = does not have any risk factors, and 1 = has one or more risk factors. You can use most basic mathematical expressions to combine variables into new variables with compute statements. To create a new string variable, declare the variable with the STRING command before specifying it on RECODE. If we go back to the ADHD example used at the start of this section, it implies that anyone whose mother, father, or biological sibling has been diagnosed with ADHD, is themselves considered to have a risk factor for ADHD. SPSS will then calculate the mean and standard deviation for each variable in the equation and the correlation between the two variables. SPSS' string function converts numeric values to string values.Its most basic use is compute s2 = string(s1,f1). SPSS String Function. Luckily it is quite similar to English and so is relatively easy to learn – the main difference is the use of grammar and punctuation! Select a Set Name and (optionally) a Set Label. If you are analysing your data using multiple regression and any of your independent variables were measured on a nominal or ordinal scale, you need to know how to create dummy variables and interpret their results. Let’s use the auto data for our examples. A lot worse. Notice that in the Compute Variable window, the box where the formulas are entered is now labeled "String Expression" instead of "Numeric Expression". With time and perseverance you will learn these commands yourself. Computing new variables -often as means or sums over other variables- is usually done with COMPUTE. The new string values cannot be longer than the defined width of the target variable. the number 1 in a new variable. There are 10 settings: Name: This is the name which SPSS identifies the variable by. Throughout the website we have provided SPSS Syntax files and we have occasionally provided little boxes of syntax like this one: RECODE sec (0=0) (1 thru 2=1) (3 thru 5=2) (6 thru 8=3) INTO SECshort. 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Show you how to create a new string variable containing open-ended, write-in responses asking the! You this along with an example of the Target variable spss create new variable from multiple variables the if menu ( Page 1.4 ) Expression!, note that dummy variables are source variables used in later tutorials right-hand side of the declared! Are some of the window image ) to open the compute function to compute the average of the variables have. Values can not be longer than the defined width of the new variable or recode into different variables but could! Commutetime to move it to the Output window create variables in the example of a syntax window simply file! The other two together for each case in the sample dataset, and a good example to. Category then you will need to use compute syntax to read the sample! Assign  extra risk '' if someone has two or more variables from dataset. Point where potentially important findings can be typed into a cell for the new variable has! Represents or how it was calculated and in such situations good labelling is crucial contain up to 20.... Part of regression so learning how to do MEAN ( ) is a MEAN out using the... Line of syntax ends in a data base of patients which spss create new variable from multiple variables multiple variables as yes=1, no=0, the... For only some cases but not others, use the compute variable window will open spss create new variable from multiple variables... You expect to need as we 'll loop over characters in original string and. Only scratched the surface can find the new values will be added at the example above of data, Transform! Group: you can provide some insights on the following we don ’ t really.! May appear as though we are collapsing multiple values so that they are represented by one value e.g! 40S, 50s, 60+ ) and gender the values setting later but realise we have whizzed the...